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Handbook On Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) | by ADB

Battery Energy Storage System (BESS)

This #handbook offers guidance on the applications, technologies, business models, and regulations essential for assessing the viability of a #battery #energy storage system (BESS) project. It covers a range of applications and use cases such as frequency regulation, integration of renewables, peak shaving, microgrids, and black start capabilities.

Battery Energy Storage System
Battery Energy Storage System (BESS)

Integrating distributed energy resources into traditional unidirectional electric power systems presents challenges. These include maintaining system reliability amidst the variable and intermittent nature of wind and solar power generation, and balancing the need to keep customer tariffs affordable with the investment in network expansion, advanced metering infrastructure, and other smart grid technologies.

The solution to these challenges lies in enhancing the flexibility of power systems. This ensures that rare instances of surplus renewable energy output are not curtailed, thereby reducing the necessity for extensive network expansion and the associated high costs passed on to consumers. Energy storage represents one potential avenue for achieving this flexibility.

Batteries have proven to be an economically viable solution for energy storage. Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) are modular and can be accommodated in standard shipping containers.

Until recently, the high costs and low round-trip efficiency of battery energy storage systems limited their widespread adoption. However, the increased use of lithium-ion batteries in consumer electronics and electric vehicles has led to a significant expansion in global manufacturing capacity, driving down costs considerably—a trend expected to persist in the future. The affordability and high efficiency of lithium-ion batteries have spurred a recent increase in the deployment of battery energy storage systems, ranging from small-scale, behind-the-meter installations to large-scale, grid-connected projects.

This handbook breaks down the Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) into its fundamental elements and lays the groundwork for estimating the costs of future BESS projects. For instance, battery energy storage units can help address various challenges related to the integration of renewables into the large-scale grid.

Figure 1 – Schematic of A Utility-Scale Energy Storage System

Utility-Scale Energy Storage System
Figure 1 – Schematic of A Utility-Scale Energy Storage System


  • ACB – Air circuit breaker,

  • BESS – Battery energy storage system,

  • EIS – Eectric insulation switchgear,

  • GISGas insulation switchgear,

  • HSCB – High-speed circuit breaker,

  • kV – Kilovolt,

  • LPMS – Local power management system,

  • MW – Megawatt,

  • PCS – Power conversion system,and

  • S/S – Substation system.

Firstly, batteries are theoretically more suited for frequency management compared to the conventional spinning reserve of power plants. Secondly, batteries provide a cost-effective substitute for network expansion to reduce curtailments in wind and solar power generation.

In a similar manner, batteries assist consumers in evading peak charges by supplying off-grid energy during the hours of on-grid peak usage.

Thirdly, since the generation of renewable energy often does not align with electricity demand, it is essential to either reduce or export the excess power. This surplus energy can be stored in batteries for later use, particularly when the supply of renewable energy is insufficient and the demand for electricity increases.

Energy Storage System (ESS) Components

The components of the Energy Storage System (ESS), as depicted in Figure 1, are classified into three functional groups: battery components, components essential for reliable system operation, and components for grid connection. The battery system includes the battery pack, connecting multiple cells to achieve the desired voltage and capacity, the Battery Management System (BMS), and the Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS).

The Battery Management System (BMS) protects cells from harmful operating conditions, particularly concerning voltage, temperature, and current, to guarantee reliable and safe performance. It also balances the various states of charge (SOCs) of cells connected in series.

The Battery Thermal Management System (B-TMS) controls the temperature of each cell according to its specific needs, considering both the absolute temperature values and the temperature gradients within the battery pack.

The key components required to ensure the reliable operation of the entire system encompass system control and monitoring, Energy Management Systems (EMS), and thermal management of the system.

Figure 2 – Schematic of A Battery Energy Storage System

Battery Energy Storage System
Figure 2 – Schematic of A Battery Energy Storage System


  • BMS – Battery Management System, and

  • J/B – Junction Box.

System control and monitoring involve the comprehensive oversight and data gathering of different systems, including IT monitoring, fire protection, and alarm units. This process is commonly incorporated into the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system.

The EMS is responsible for regulating, managing, and distributing the system's power flow. System thermal management includes all activities related to controlling temperature, airflow, and air conditioning within the containment system.

Power electronics are primarily divided into two main components: the conversion unit, which enables the transfer of electricity between the grid and the battery, and the control and monitoring components. These include voltage sensing units and thermal management systems that cool the power electronics components with fans.


Handbook On Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) by ADB




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