Electrical Distribution System
An electrical distribution system is a series of electrical circuits that delivers power in the proper proportion to homes, commercial businesses and industrial facilities. Regardless of the size and applications, the ultimate goal remains universal: the economic and safe delivery of adequate electric power to electrical equipment.
In general, there are three types of distribution systems: radial, loop and network. The type used by the utility company depends on the services required, location and economics.
Radial Distribution System
The Radial Distribution System has one power source for a group of customers. If there is a power failure, the entire group loses power. In addition, a circuit failure somewhere in the system could mean a power interruption for the entire system.
Loop Distribution System
The Loop Distribution System loops through the service area and returns to the point of origin. The strategic placement of switches permits the electric company to supply power to customers from either direction. If one power source fails, switches are opened or closed to obtain a power source.
Network Distribution System
The Network Distribution System is the most expensive, and the most reliable in terms of continuity of service. This system consists of a number of interconnecting circuits operating at the same utilization voltage.
The customer is connected to two or more power supplies. If one power source fails, the customer gets power from the other sources, without interruption.
Fundamentals of Electrical Distribution by Eaton